|also called OSMAN GAZI (b. 1258--d. 1324, Sögüt, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey]), ruler of a Turkmen principality in northwestern Anatolia who is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state. Both the name of the dynasty and the empire that the dynasty established are derived from the Arabic form ('Uthman) of his name.|
Sultan Osman Kahn was one of three sons of Ertoghrul Ghazi from the Kayi branch of the Oguz Turkmen. He was not the eldest son but was easily the most capable. After his father's death, the other Beys of the tribe unanimously elected him the Chief.
When he became Chief of the tribe he was 23 years old. He was tall, broad-cheated, with thick eyebrows, a ram like nose and grayish-blue eyes. He had broad shoulders, the upper half of his body being longer than the lower and brown hair.
His father, Ertugrul, had established a principality centred at Sögüt. With Sögüt as their base, Osman and the Muslim frontier warriors (Ghazis) under his command waged a slow and stubborn conflict against the Byzantines, who sought to defend their territories in the hinterland of the Asiatic shore opposite Constantinople (now Istanbul). Osman gradually extended his control over several former Byzantine fortresses, including Yenisehir, which provided the Ottomans with a strong base to lay siege to Bursa and Nicaea (now Iznik), in northwestern Anatolia.
He was once the guest of Edebali, one of the greatest Sheiks, and could not sleep all night out of sheer respect. Sheik Edebali was impressed with Osman's behavior and gave his daughter's hand in marriage to Osman.
Osman Khan conquered Karahissar in 1287. In 1289, having defeated the Byzantine at Domanich, he seized Biledjik and was appointed Uchbey by the Seljukian Emperor. In 1299 Inegoel was taken, the Seljukian Empire destroyed and Sultan Osman declared an Independent Principality. In 1300 Yenisheheer and Koepruhisar were captured, followed by Akhissar and Kodjahissar in 1302.
Four thousand square kilometers were left to Osman by his father but, by the time of his death, the lands of his Principality stretched for 16,000 square kilometers.
Before he died, Sultan Osman made the following testament to his son, Orkhan Khan:
"My first will to you, my dear son and my friends, is that you fight for the great religion of Islam. Holy warfare is sacred under the banner of Mohammed (s). Allah charged me, his poor slave, to conquer and spread the word of Islam all over the world. I charge you to do the same. Whoever of my descendants, swerves from honesty and justice will be deprived of our Master Mohammed's blessing.
My dear son, all humans must die. With Allah's will, my death is near. I bestow the territory to you and urge you, with Allah's help, to be just."
In August 1326, Sultan Osman died. He was 68 years old and left behind him a horse armor, a pair of boots, some banners, a sword, a spear, a quiver, some horses, three sheep, a salt cellar and a spoon case.
His body was buried next to his father's tomb. It has been said that Osman's body was taken to the city of Bursa after it was captured, and as was his wish, buried in the Gumushlu Kunbed. .
However, some researchers say that he did not die until after Bursa was captured and that, therefore, there was no need to move his body.
The great Moslem personalities of Sultan Osman Khan's reign were - Khawaja Arif Riwakri and Mahomoud al-Injeer Fagnewi from the Naqshbandi Tariqa.
His sons were - Pazari Bey, Choban Bey, Khamid Bey, Orkhan Bey, Ala-ud-din Ali Bey, Melik Bey and Savdji Bey. His only daughter was Fatima Hatoun.